Over at ScienceBlogs, Chris writes about two social psychologists who have studied the links between musical preference and personality type. Chris describes it very well, so I won't go into the details. I will quibble with the researchers' claims that music has not been studied by social psychologists. "Despite its prevalence in everyday life, however, the sound of music has remained mute within social and personality psychology."
Two major books dispute this claim:
I used both of these in my Psychology of Music class, which detail research similar to Rentfrow's and Gosling's.
There is an online test of this research that you can partake in. Here is My Music Personality, and here is Chris's top 10 list. I found this post via Dave Munger.